Buccal Misoprostol for Treatment of Fetal Death at 14–28 Weeks of Pregnancy: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial
- March 13th, 2014
- Pregnancy Failure and Miscarriage
- Bracken, H., Ngoc, N.T., Banks, E., Blumenthal, P.D., Derman, R.J., Patel, A., Gold, M., Winikoff, B., Buccal misoprostol for IUFD Research Group.
Contraception; 2014 Mar; 89(3):187-92; doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2013.11.014
Objective: To assess whether buccal misoprostol is effective for the treatment of intrauterine fetal death.
Study design: This double-blind randomized trial was conducted at five tertiary-level hospitals in the United States and Vietnam. One hundred fifty-three women with an intrauterine fetal death at 14-28 weeks of pregnancy received either 100 mcg buccal misoprostol or 200 mcg buccal misoprostol every 6 h for a maximum of 8 doses. The main outcome measure was the fetal-placental delivery rate within 48 hours of prostaglandin commencement without any additional intervention.
Results: Most of the women (140/153) were recruited at the study site in Vietnam. Expulsion of both fetus and placenta within 48 hours of prostaglandin commencement without any additional interventions occurred in 61.8% (47/76) of women receiving misoprostol 100 mcg and 77.9% (60/77) of women receiving misoprostol 200 mcg. The 200 mcg dose was significantly more effective than the 100 mcg dose at expelling the fetus and placenta within 48 h [RR 0.68 (95% CI: 0.50-0.92; p=.03)]. The mean time to expulsion was significantly shorter using the 200 mcg dose (18.5±11.9 h) than the 100 mcg dose (23.9±12.5 h) (p=.02). Most women in both groups found the procedure satisfactory or very satisfactory (100 mcg: 76.7% (56/73); 200 mcg: 89.5% (68/76) [RR 0.86 (95% CI: 0.74-1.00)].
Conclusion: Buccal misoprostol is an effective method for medical induction of labor after intrauterine fetal demise. A 200 mcg dose is significantly more effective than 100 mcg for evacuating the uterus within 48h. The treatment is highly acceptable to women.
Implications: Administration of 200 mcg buccal misoprostol every six hours is an effective and acceptable method to effect the delivery of a demised fetus at 14-28 weeks that can be feasibly implemented in a wide variety of settings.